European Foulbrood Larvae die in a coiled, twisted, or irregular position in their cells. Cells are usually uncapped. Larvae color may change from the light cream to grayish brown, darkening as the dead larvae dry up. Sour odor may be present. Dead larvae are not ropy as in American Foulbrood. Treatment for the above is Tylan Powder. Unfortunately Tylan Powder is now a prescription only medication now. Treat in Spring and Fall. Mix 100mg Tylan with 22lbs. of confectioners powdered sugar. For smaller quantities mix 2-1/2 teaspoons of Tylan powder with 2lbs. of powdered sugar. MIX WELL! Your colonies should receive three treatments administered as a dust in confectioners powdered sugar. Two rounded tablespoons are dusted over the top bars of the brood chamber once a week for three weeks. A 100g package will treat 166 colonies. American Foulbrood Brood pattern is irregular rather than compact. Healthy larvae are glistening white color, diseased ones lose this apprearance, and turn from light brown to dark brown and are upright, not twisted in cells. Larvae long dead develop the consistency of glue and are difficult for bees to remove. Cappings become concave and some will be punctured by bees attempting to remove the dead brood. Surface of cappings will be moist or wet rather than dry. Some dead pupae, shrunken into scales, have their tongues protruding at right angle to their scale or straight up. This may be the only recongnizable characteristic. Treatment for the above is with Tylan Powder. Treat in spring and fall. See the instructions above for the European Foulbrood. For pricing and/or to order Tylan Powder go back to the item. (M25)